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The Franks were busy in Burgundy and did not move further south, leaving Odo independent until his death in Hunald refused to recognize Charles Martel, who sent his troops south and captured Bordeaux in Hunald was forced to accept Frankish authority, and Martel withdrew his troops from Aquitaine to attack Arab holdings on the Mediterranean coast near Narbonne.

Hunald again rebelled against Frankish authority the following year; after his defeat, he retired to a monastery. He was succeeded by his son, Waifer of Aquitaine also known as Waifre and Gaifier. Pippin, busy at home and sharing power with his brother, left Waifer in possession of Aquitaine and became sole ruler of the Frankish realm in In he deposed the last Merovingian king and was elected king of the Franks with the support of the pope , founding the Carolingian dynasty. In , Pippin resumed the conquest of Arab territories on the Mediterranean coast where his father had failed.

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Facing local resistance, including intervention by Duke Waifer, in he captured Narbonne and ended Arab rule north of the Pyrenees. Aquitaine was now surrounded by the Frankish kingdom, and in Pippin began its conquest. It took the Franks eight years to subdue Aquitaine, Toulouse and Gascony; in , the last pockets of resistance crumbled as Duke Waifer was betrayed and murdered under mysterious circumstances. Although Aquitaine was destroyed after eight years of scorched-earth tactics by Pippin and Waifer, the region would recover under Charlemagne.

Toulouse, Aquitaine and Gascony were again part of the Frankish kingdom.

After his victory, Pippin the Short died in and was succeeded by his sons Charlemagne and Carloman. Charlemagne intervened, defeating him. In Carloman died, leaving Charlemagne sole ruler of the Frankish realm.

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In , Charlemagne led his army into Spain against the Arabs. On his way back, in Roncesvalles , Charlemagne's rear guard was attacked in the pass by Basque warriors. Realizing that the local populations were not entirely loyal to the Franks, he reorganized the region's administration; direct Frankish government was instituted, and Frankish counts deputies of the Frankish king were appointed in cities such as Toulouse. Similar kingdoms were established in Bavaria and Lombardy to ensure the loyalty of local populations.

Crowns were also given to Charlemagne's other sons, and Aquitaine was known for its independence and wealth. Charlemagne saw that he could not trust the local nobility of Vasconia , appointing Frankish counts and creating counties such as Fezensac which could fight regional dukes such as Lupus. Oversight of this Basque frontier seems to have been given to Chorson, count or duke of Toulouse.

In or Chorson was captured by Odalric the Basque probably Lupus' son , who forced him into an agreement. Charlemagne replaced him with Count William in Charlemagne's reign saw the recovery of western Europe from the preceding dark age.

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Toulouse was a major Carolingian military stronghold against Muslim Spain, with military campaigns launched from the city nearly every year of Charlemagne's reign. In , Barcelona and a large part of Catalonia were conquered.


With the northern areas of Aragon and Navarre in the Pyrenees, the region became the southern Spanish March of the Frankish empire. In , Charlemagne died. The kingdom of Aquitaine was transferred to Pippin , Louis' second son.

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Gothia was detached from Aquitaine and administered directly by the emperor, recreating the former duchy of Aquitaine. Louis had three sons, and in he arranged an allocation of shares in their future inheritance. Pippin was confirmed king of Aquitaine, Louis the German was made king in Bavaria and eldest son Lothar became co-emperor with future authority over his brothers.

In Charles the Bald , Louis the Pious' son with his second wife, was born and she wished to place her son in the line of succession. Strife between his three older sons and Louis and his new wife led to the gradual collapse of the Frankish empire. At the Assembly of Worms , the empire was re-divided. Charles the Bald received the western part of the empire, Lothar the central and eastern part and Louis the German Bavaria. Louis the Pious died in , Lothar claimed the empire and war broke out.

In August , they signed the Treaty of Verdun. The empire was divided into three parts. Charles the Bald received the western part, Francia Occidentalis Western Frankland, soon called France ; Louis the German the eastern part, Francia Orientalis Eastern Frankland, soon the German Holy Roman Empire , and Lothar received the central part soon to be conquered and divided between his brothers. Family strife left the empire weak and undefended, and the Vikings took advantage of the situation. He conquered Gothia, and in besieged Toulouse before withdrawing from the city.

That year the Vikings entered the Garonne River, took Bordeaux and sailed as far as Toulouse, plundering and killing throughout the valley.

They withdrew from Toulouse, without attacking the city. The Aquitanians, now dissatisfied with Pippin, asked Charles to topple him in Aquitaine soon submitted to Charles; in Pippin was imprisoned by the Basques and handed over to Charles who placed him in a monastery. This began the dynasty of the counts of Toulouse , who were descendants of Count Raymond I of Toulouse. In , following the example of his grandfather Charlemagne, Charles the Bald recreated the kingdom of Aquitaine without Gothia and gave the crown to his son Charles the Child.

Pippin II of Aquitaine escaped from the monastery in , and unsuccessfully attempted to foment an insurrection in Aquitaine. He appealed to the Vikings for help and in , at the head of a Viking army, unsuccessfully besieged Toulouse. The Vikings left to plunder other areas of Aquitaine and Pippin II was captured and again placed in a monastery by his uncle, where he soon died. By then, the central state in the kingdom of France was losing its authority. Charles was unsuccessful at containing the Vikings and local populations relied on their counts, who became the chief authorities.

As their power increased, they established local dynasties. Wars began between the central authorities and the counts and between counts, which weakened defenses against the Vikings. Western Europe, France in particular, entered a new dark age which would be more disastrous than that of the sixth and seventh centuries.

Charles the Bald signed the Capitulary of Quierzy , allowing counts to be succeeded by their sons, before his death four months later; this formed the basis of feudalism in western Europe. He was succeeded as king of France by his son, Louis the Stammerer, king of Aquitaine. Louis did not choose any of his sons as the new king of Aquitaine, putting an end to the kingdom.

However, from to central power was so weak that the counts in southern France were autonomous and Paris would not reassert its authority over the south of France for four centuries. The counts of Toulouse were challenged by those of Auvergne , who ruled the northeastern part of former Aquitaine and claimed Toulouse.

The counts of Toulouse survived; although the county was a small part of the former Aquitaine, at the death of Count William the Pious of Auvergne in it acquired Gothia. Toulouse would never again be part of Aquitaine, whose capital would become Poitiers and then Bordeaux. William the Pious was the first to recreate the title of Duke of Aquitaine for himself during the s, and the count of Poitiers inherited the title in The French throne had become a nearly empty title.

The title of Duke of Aquitaine would be held by the family of the counts of Poitiers , whose power base at Poitou was in northwestern Aquitaine.

History of Toulouse

Hugh Capet founded the Capetian dynasty , which would rule France for the next eight centuries. The counts of Toulouse extended their domain to the Mediterranean coast, but their rule was short-lived. During the 10th century civilization, the arts and education had declined; a rebirth of culture and order during the reign of Charlemagne was smothered by Viking invasions, augmented by poor weather and plagues which contributed to population loss.

Large areas of western Europe returned to wilderness, and cities were depopulated. Churches were abandoned or plundered; Christianity lost much of its moral authority, although Roman culture survived in scattered monasteries. Authority decentralized, falling from counts to viscounts to thousands of local feudal lords. By the end of the century, France was governed by thousands of local rulers who controlled one town or one castle and a few surrounding villages. Between and the counts of Toulouse gradually lost control to local dynastic rulers, and by ruled only a few scattered estates; the city was ruled by a viscount, independent of the counts.

Invasions had also resumed. During the s, he launched an offensive against the Christian kingdoms in northern Spain. In one of Abd al-Rahman's armies crossed the Pyrenees, reaching Toulouse without capturing the city. By the end of the 10th century, the Carolingian wars and subsequent invasions had left the county in disarray. Land was left uncultivated, and many farms were abandoned. In Saint-Sernin he was opposed by Raimond Gayrard, a provost who had built a hospital for the poor and wanted to build a basilica.

During this period Toulouse developed more efficient agricultural methods; the suburbs of Saint-Michel and Saint-Cyprien were built and Saint-Sernin and Saint-Pierre des Cuisines developed. The Daurade bridge, connecting Saint-Cyprien to the city, was built in The end of the 11th century marked the departure of count Raymond IV for the Crusades.